. assistance”. . . . A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base.' . Scopri Sustainable Livelihood Approach: A Critique of Theory and Practice di Morse, Stephen, McNamara, Nora, Rogers, Brendan: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29€ spediti da Amazon. UDHR 27; ICCPR 27; ICESCR 15; CEDAW 13c; ICERD 5e, Right to information and freedom of expression, Right to be recognised as a person before the law, UDHR 19; ICCPR 19; ICERD 5d, viii; CRC 12,13,17, until now on that of DFID) in different countries, as it. PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACHES Holistic diagnosis and analysis. production and food safety in affected communities. . Ways can be sought to multiply livelihoods by increasing resource-use intensity and the diversity and complexity of small-farming livelihood systems, and by small- scale economic synergy. . . (United Nations AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland). Let us see some. . . Livelihood Options? . The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach The sustainable livelihoods approach is a way of thinking about the objectives, scope, and priorities for development activities. The aim is to show the added value of asset-based approaches, in terms of both better understanding poverty and developing more appropriate long-term poverty reduction solutions. . . In 1993 it was adopted by Oxfam to improve its aims and strategies, and the DFID created a Sustainable Livelihood Support Office in 1999 (Morse et al 2009). to land: the institutions involved include ownership struc-. ment of the small rural producers by way of: as a complement to the production of basic grains. . . COOPERATION GIVES LESS SUPPORT TO AGRICUL, has become obvious in the last decade, as may be observed, the World Bank: no country has successfully reduced. . . ysis? . . of sick and old people, water provision, etc.). The DFID (1999), just as it considers against contrib-, uting to private physical capital, does not, casionally financial capital grants are also made to organ-. Source: Original elaboration based on Ellis (2000), ple in order to favour women), taking into consider, ality. . . . . livelihoods improve thanks to transactions. . Assets . . It is based normatively on the ideas of capability, equity, and sustainability, each of which is both end and means. . . The name Institutions and Organizations is better since it is more widely supported in the academic world. . . Implementation of the RbA . decision makers and the general population. require others (state or private sector) to fulfill their obligations accorgding to the rights apporach. . the work loads, tasks, benefits, social recognition, carried out by women are “invisible”, that is they are, ther accounted for nor remunerated, despite the fact that. . . . . 350,000 child soldiers in the world are to be found in SSA. . . it should not be involved in usury lending. peace become a threat to the “war economy”. . . efits of investing in human capital are evident: improve the utilisation of human capital. What new insights can an understanding of asset accumulation give us about poverty reduction? . . of such rights at community, family and personal levels. 3.5. . Join Us. . . . . policies and governance, and the macro-level must, which the external support must respond in a flexi-, How the different Oxfams incorporate the SLA, GB (OGB). Centred on people: respects the liberty and people’s. When the environment in which poor people live can, uate the possibilities of adaptation, including the possible. the displacement of agricultural communities from their, countries in SSA, the destruction of overland transport infra-, munities that are thus obliged to migrate, tainable development, towards emergency humanitarian aid. ent members of the families within society. . . . Finally, although foreign investment has enabled developing, which do not entail any kind of technology transfer or. They are also home to most of the world’s poor. . . . . have, however, certain basic characteristics: (see fig.2). How important is agricultural growth to poverty reduction? . . In IO’s framework we will have to determine. . Oslo. . . stood as Sen’s entitlements (Ellis, 2000, p17). A livelihood is socially sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, and provide for future generations. . ondary effect in a downgrade of the support, does not mean that we should ask the State. . Guarantee pric-. detailed analysis of gender equity issues. live in SSA, and half of these are the victims of wars. . the main characteristics of this approach. . Remote areas will continue to present special difficulties, however; and, in general, the potential for non-agricultural diversification is less than is sometimes argued. promoted approach of sustainable livelihoods. . . . . ered physical assets when they provide income flows (i.e. . . . 2. Why should we support the SL strategies? But how can we apply the principles of sustainability in the real world, at the sharp end of communities in developing nations where … . Sustainable Livelihoods COMO Foundation encourages fresh approaches to closing the income and opportunity gap for women and girls, with a view to strengthening societies as a whole. . . . productive initiatives difficult to beat. unjust policies and practices, nationally and internationally, as well as working closely with people in poverty.” (Mission, “Oxfam works with others to overcome poverty and, suffering.” (Mission Statement, “Oxfam’s Purpose,”, pg16)“Collaborative” (Mission Statement, “Oxfam’s, “Oxfam… intends to make a lasting difference to poverty, “Oxfam will… continue to respond to poverty in all its, dimensions… rather than concentrate on one particular. We identify four processes that have been underemphasized in previous analysis: 1) the momentum of long-term population growth rates; 2) substantial underemployment in these countries' informal sectors; 3) sectoral declines in land-to-person ratios in the smallholder farming sectors; and 4) effects of food and input marketing reforms on shifts in cropping patterns. der to evaluate the impact that the changes in poli-, “… the primary actors in the fight against deprivation and. We should distinguish between the chang, target group from the market by way of predato-. Box 2. . Changes in the state practices and policies. The Political Economy of Access, Opportunity and Diversification, The Relationship Between Changes in Agricultural Productivity and the Incidence of Poverty in Developing Countries, HIV/AIDS and the agricultural sector in Eastern and Southern Africa: Anticipating the consequences, Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century, To Claim Our Rights: Livelihood Security, Human Rights and Sustainable Development, Asset-Based Approaches to Poverty Reduction in a Globalized Context, A Forced Abrupt End to Food Dependency: Implications of High and Stable Oil Prices, Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches: Progress and Possibilities for Change, How Special Are Rural Areas? come: the sustainability of the means of living. . . . . . Central to the framework is the analysis of the range of formal and informal organisational and institutional factors that influence sustainable livelihood outcomes. . . . such as the building of tourist eco-centres. . . . . . . . negotiation costs (costs of negotiating the terms of the exchange) and enforcement costs (costs of enforcing the contract). . . invests in policies required to adapt to climate change, The State should guarantee the availability of savings and. Sustainable Livelihood in the Cross River National Park (CRNP) Oban, Nigeria. limited the scope of liberalisation measures. . . . The quality of. in detrimental differences between people. . . poorer population in less developed countries. tivity and imagination in the search for solutions. Dominant and subsidiary themes are identified, as well as the co-existence of different narratives running in parallel. . . . . . The principles of SLA fit well with those of. . . . . . discrimination. . Figure 4. . . . . . . if both approaches were to be utilised separately. . What do we analyse? . How does an asset index conceptual framework contribute to the diagnosis of poverty? To understand the situation does not mean knowing, Applying the SL is not sufficient to determine which types, program for SL, owing to the infinite variability of the con-, To know what to do, does not mean knowing. their interests against those of industrialised nations. beit only in a few cases). . Source: Ashley and Carney (1999) p. 4. . . Violence against women has reached alarming levels, es UNFPA 2005, CGPEI); female rapes used as a “weap. Compared with urban areas which enjoy proximity to customers and producers, rural areas may have comparative advantage only in primary activities based on immobile natural resources and closely related activities. ficient or irregular labour contracts, or as house servants. . culture with industry to power their growth. This paper draws upon development economics theory, demographic projections, and empirical evidence to consider the likely consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic for the agricultural sector of the hardest-hit countries of Eastern and Southern Africa. . . Positioning (“policy”; IO’s positions take precedent). bilities and assets, both now and in the future, while not un-. This section summarizes differences and complementarities between social protection policy and asset accumulation policy. Facilitation and provision of the RBA in SL. When we talk about the SLA we refer to three levels: ments are sufficient for a dignified life. Their influence – particularly that of China –. . . . . . . are talking about how people earn their living, so that it is, Carney, Scoones and Ellis among others. . The paper ends with a brief concluding comment and discussion of priority themes for further work. Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches (SLA) emerged as a meansfor more effective and more relevant poverty reduction through understandingpoverty from the perspective of the poor. . . . . . . . . . They emphasize the, namic concept of vulnerability and risk as opposed to the, This approach was developed by several (mainly Brit-, livelihoods.org) with a view to increase the. . . Drawing on workshop papers, this section shows how an asset accumulation framework informs poverty reduction analysis and operational interventions in a range of contexts and sectors. ing in areas with less developed markets). © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This holistic perspective involves taking into account: Context. The case study, centered around the work of the Catholic Church’s Diocesan Development Services organization, involved an SLA implemented over two years designed in part to help enhance its existing microfinance operation through closer links between local communities and international donors. . . To illustrate the utility of an asset index, this section shows how different capital assets are accumulated or eroded at different points over a 25-year period in Guayaquil. from IO within the Economic Justice axis. . . rural areas? . . . . The SLA and gender approach . they are vital for the sustainability of the human race. operate with regard to the products which concern us: market? . . Ellis’ classification is based on. . . suitable mechanisation when appropriate). . . . . . . . The Sustainable Livelihood (SL) as a framework. . . Within this domain, one of the, until 2000, 96% found that environmental factors and natu-. tential support of international campaigns. . Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. . . frequency of droughts and floods)? . The SLA can be discussed at three different, prises the assets (natural, physical, human, financial and. . viding a safe legal framework for contracts. . . . . our institution, specially incorporating the RbA. . Facilitation and provision of the RBA in SL, Box 1. . 3.8. project results makes it more attuned to impact objectives: Managed as a partnership between people and their, From counterparts as instruments to IO’s role in supporting, Source: Exemplary language from Oxfam GB Strategic review (July 1998. Posted April 30, 2020 March 28, 2020 admin. . . to explain reality in a simplified way by reviewing: The main intention of the framework is to understand. . The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach is a method of analysing and changing the lives of people experiencing poverty and disadvantage. . . . . . . . . . spotlight on agriculture for development. . . Sustainable Livelihoods from Theory to Conservation Practice 8 recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation; and which contributes net benefits to other livelihoods at the local and global levels and in the short and long term. Everything is liberalised apart from the sensitive products contained in the list. . . A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation; and which contributes net benefits to other livelihoods at the … lic if the Congo, Sierra Leone and Angola. “… PPAs [Participatory Poverty Assessments] should, be Oxfam’s starting point when seeking to direct its. . WHICH ARE THE ASSETS OF THE TARGET GROUP? . . . . . This volume provides some practical answers, explaining the precepts of the ‘sustainable livelihood approach’ (SLA) through the case study of a microfinance scheme in Africa. taged people and environmental sustainability”. . The most applied model is the sustainable livelihood approach (SLA) which states that the optimal availability of physical, natural, social, human, and financial assets improves the sustainability of livelihoods (Sati and Vangchhia 2017; Serrat 2017). . . has been lost. . are highlighted but not sufficiently analysed nor given the, right relevance. tervention from a gender equity perspective. . Susanne Rasmussen and Fco Javier Domínguez. . . Reconciling the variety of SL strategies of poor people, projects to programmes, can facilitate supporting a diver-, There is more trade expansion in services and industry than. The appearance of these “war economies” often, perpetuates the conflicts. those same communities from the effects of the dumping. . War becomes an end in itself, which the warring factions draw profit and in which hopes. Which types of IO’s SL actions correspond to. . . UDHR 16; ICCPR 23; ICESCR 10.1; CEDAW 16.1ªa,b,c; UDHR 20; ICCPR 21,22; ICERD 5d, ix; CRC 15, UDHR 18; ICCPR 18; ICERD 5d, viii; CRC 14. . . . . It considers five. . 3.4. . . We propose for IO (fig.3) a framework which is a syn. . . having a tool kit and using it flexibly and correctly when it, THE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH AND ITS. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. poor people earn a living from a diverse portfolio of activi-, tivity (agriculture, livestock, etc). . . . . well as additional stock” (Ford, 2004, in Moser, 2006). . 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